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Form as the result of cooling molten material, such as lava from a volcano. Fossils are very rare in igneous rocks. (eg. basalt, granite)
Consist of sand, mud and other materials that settled under water or on land. As they did so they built up deposits called strata. Fossils are common in sedimentary rocks and some such as coal consist entirely of fossil material. (eg. shale, sandstone, limestone)
Formed either from igneous or sedimentary rocks by alterations from the rock due to high temperatures and pressures. Fossils in metamorphic rocks are relatively rare and are commonly quite poorly preserved. (eg. quartzite, marble)